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As we all know, the earth is getting warmer year by year and facing climate change as the effect of the global warming that is caused by the gases that are trapped in the atmosphere. Those gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Fluorinated Gases that mostly come from human activity such as electricity needs and heat production, agriculture and land use changes, industry, transportation, buildings, and other sources that include emissions from energy-related activities other than fossil fuel combustion (Denchak, 2019).Ã
Based on the air temperature record, the emissions continue to rise and now the earth is about 1.10C warmer than it was in the late 1800s. This rising of the air temperature leads to many consequences among others, intense droughts, water scarcity, severe fires, rising sea levels, flooding, melting polar ice, catastrophic storms and declining biodiversity (What Is Climate Change? | United Nations, n.d.). Climate Change itself has actually been a global concern for a long time, marked by the establishment of the Conference of Parties (COP) as the international political response to climate change began at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, where the ÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬ÃÅRio ConventionÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã¢âÂ¢ included the adoption of the UN Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC). (UNFCCC COP 21 Paris France - 2015 Paris Climate Conference, n.d.).
Then, during the COP21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015, Parties to the UNFCCC reached a landmark agreement to combat climate change and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future. The Paris AgreementÃÂ¢Ã¢âÂ¬Ã¢âÂ¢s central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the agreement aims to increase the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change, and at making finance flows consistent with a low GHG emissions and climate-resilient pathway (Key Aspects of the Paris Agreement, n.d.). The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects. Implementation of the Paris Agreement requires economic and social transformation, based on the best available science. The Paris Agreement works on a 5- year cycle of increasingly ambitious climate action carried out by countries and also provides a framework for financial, technical and capacity building support to those countries who need it (The Paris Agreement, n.d.).
Actually the COP26 should be held in 2020 as a 5-year cycle of the Paris Agreement, but it was postponed due to the Covid-19 pandemic, so the COP26 has been held in Glasgow, Scotland from 31 October - 12 November 2021. This COP26, as we mentioned before, becomes really necessary because every country of the parties will submit their plans for climate action known Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the long-term strategies known long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS).Ã
There are several results from COP26 such as :
Funding from developed countries to combat and mitigate climate change.
Compensation from developed countries for the impact that will befall them
Ã Money from a group of developed countries to help them implement a more environmentally friendly economy.
Discussions related to climate finance will be one of the agendas that will be discussed at COP26.
In addition, it is hoped that this high-level meeting will be able to find the best way to implement the carbon market system and carbon credits. This system is a mechanism for carbon-producing countries to pay for their emissions, and countries that have implemented a green economy to sell carbon credits. The COP26 is expected to ensure that each country is committed to achieving the 2050 target with zero emissions and making carbon reductions progressively by 2030.
Denchak, M. (2019, July 16). Greenhouse Effect 101. NRDC. Retrieved November 18, 2021, from https://www.nrdc.org/stories/greenhouse-effect-101
Key aspects of the Paris Agreement. (n.d.). UNFCCC. Retrieved November 19, 2021, from https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement/key-aspects-of-the-paris-agreement
The Paris Agreement. (n.d.). UNFCCC. Retrieved November 19, 2021, from https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement
UNFCCC COP 21 Paris France - 2015 Paris Climate Conference. (n.d.). COP21. Retrieved November 19, 2021, from https://www.cop21paris.org/about/cop21/
What Is Climate Change? | United Nations. (n.d.). the United Nations. Retrieved November 19, 2021, from https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/what-is-climate-change
Written and Curated by: Ajeng W, Arnisa Selvi & Ryadelle T