Scientific News

Utilization of Polymetallic Nodules The Metals Company (TMC) for Electric Vehicle (EV) Battery Use

1 month ago   |   Administrator

Currently, technological advances are increasingly supporting the development of new innovative and efficient, especially in the automotive sector. One of the innovative developments in electric vehicles which can be a major contribution in improving air quality by significantly reducing air pollution, especially its use in big cities. According to EDF, this electric vehicle is considered environmentally friendly because it does not emit carbon dioxide emissions when driven. One electric vehicle that is used to replace vehicles with fossil fuels, can save an average of 1.5 million grams of carbon dioxide. In this use of electric vehicles, polymetallic nodules have an important role as the cleanest source of metal used with the lightest planetary touch.

Polymetallic nodules or manganese nodules are one of the mineral resources that have been formed for millions of years by absorbing metals from seawater and are the most potential mineral resources to be developed. These polymetallic nodules consist of metal content, in the form of nickel, copper, and cobalt. Besides being the most potent, these polymetallic nodules are relatively easy to extract compared to other metallic deposits. The advantages of these nodules attracted the attention of commercial metal companies by conducting environmental expeditions to further explore the potential of polymetallic nodule collection operations. This expedition was carried out for 6 weeks in the proposed area of the company in the Clarion - Clipperton Zone (CCZ), Pacific Ocean. CEO and Chairman of The Metals Company, Gerard Barron said the campaign had a big impact on getting a picture of the potential impact of nodule collection. In addition, researchers from several marine science institutions, such as the UK National Oceanography Center (NOC), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science & Marine Technology (JAMSTEC), Natural History Museum (London), Heriot-Watt University, and the University of Gotherburg perform remote operations using the ROV and various seabed landers such as respirometers, baited traps and cameras as aids to assess the ecosystem on the abyssal seabed. Megafauna sampling was also carried out in the marine abyssal zone and important data collection on the function of deep-sea ecosystems (Wire, 2022).

Figure 1. Clarion-Clipperton Zone Location (Source: Wikipedia)

According to the International Seabed Authority, the nodules in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone have the largest distribution of polymetallic nodules exceeding 21 billion tonnes (Bt), containing 5.95 Bt manganese, 0.27 Bt nickel, 0.23 Bt copper, and 0.05 Bt cobalt (A geological model of polymetallic). nodule deposits in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone, 2010). The Metals Company (TMC) is one of the companies that utilize polymetallic nodules containing lithium, cobalt, and copper as pure electric vehicle (EV) batteries. According to Erickson (2021), these batteries account for more than 65% of the market offering a higher energy density than nickel-free batteries and are well suited for larger capacity EVs for longer distances.

On the Pacific ocean floor with a depth of 4000 to 6500 meters, the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ) between Hawaii and Mexico, nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese deposits were found in unbound polymetallic nodules which are the result of spherical accretion of iron and manganese hydroxides covering seabed area (Polymetallic nodules, nd). NORI-D TMC's nodule collection project ranks first as a nickel project in the world with a 7% increase in source over the reported area from 320 Mt to 341 Mt. According to the International Renewable Energy Agency, countries around the world are investing in large-scale clean energy transition programs and are starting to phase out internal combustion engines with hundreds of millions of tons of metal batteries to decarbonize the world's energy and transportation systems.

TMC or The Metals Company Inc. is a low-impact battery metal explorer company for seabed polymetallic nodules. The company's mission is to: (1) supply metals for the clean energy transition with minimal negative environmental and social impacts and (2) accelerate the transition to a circular metals economy. Through its subsidiaries, TMC holds exploration rights to three contract areas of polymetallic nodules in the Clarion Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean which are regulated by the International Seabed Authority and sponsored by the governments of Nauru, Kiribati and the Kingdom of Tonga. The products produced by this company consist of several metal materials for the manufacture of batteries such as Nickel Sulfate, Cobalt Sulfate, Copper, and Magnesium.

Certain statements made in this press release are statements that affirm the purpose of the port security provisions under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements also involve risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ from those discussed in the press. Most of these factors are beyond TMC's control and are difficult to predict. The factors that can cause the discrepancy are not limited to: 

  1. regulatory uncertainty and the impact of government regulations and political instability on TMC resource activities;

  2. changes to any law, rule, regulation or policy subject to TMC;

  3. the impact of extensive and costly environmental requirements on TMC operations;

  4. environmental obligations;

  5. the impact of collecting polymetallic nodules on the biodiversity in the CCZ and the recovery rate of the affected ecosystems;

  6. TMC's ability to develop minerals in grades or quantities sufficient to justify commercial operations;

  7. lack of development of seabed polymetallic nodule deposits;

  8. uncertainty in estimates for mineral resource calculations of a particular contract area and for the grade and quality of polymetallic nodule deposits;

  9. risks associated with natural hazards;

  10. uncertainty with respect to the special treatment and processing of TMC-recoverable polymetallic nodules;

  11. risks associated with collective operations, development and processing;

  12. fluctuations in transportation costs;

  13. testing and manufacturing equipment;

  14. risks associated with a limited history of TMC surgery;

  15. the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

  16. risks associated with TMC's intellectual property;

  17. and other risks and uncertainties, including those in the "Risk Factors" section, included in the final prospectus and definitive power of attorney, dated and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") on August 12, 2021 relating to the business combination, in the Quarterly Report TMC on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2021, filed by TMC with the SEC on November 15, 2021, and in other future TMC filings with the SEC. 

TMC cautions that the list of factors above is not exclusive. TMC warns readers not to rely too much on forward-looking statements, which are valid only as of the date they were made. TMC does not undertake or accept any obligation or undertake to publicly release any updates or revisions to the forward-looking statements to reflect any changes in its expectations or any changes in the events, conditions or circumstances on which such statements are based unless necessary by law.

References Benefits of electric cars on the environment. EDF. Retrieved 17 January 2022, from,This%20reduces%20air%20pollution%20considerably.

Erickson, C. (2021). EV Impact: Battery disruptors are jolting metal supply chains. Retrieved 15 January 2022, from,larger%20EVs%20going%20longer%20distances.

International Seabed Authority. (2010). A geological model of polymetallic nodule deposits in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone.

Wire, B. (2022). The Metals Company Completes Latest Deep-Sea Research Campaign on Path to Tap Planet’s Largest Known Source of EV Battery Metals. Retrieved 15 January 2022, from

Polymetallic nodules | MIDAS. Retrieved 15 January 2022, from,depths%20of%204000%2D6500%20metres.

Writer : Salsabila Hana Zyria Tanjung & Muhammad Ammar Ziddan Nurrahman Editor : Raffy Revanza Alfarez PIC    : Choerunnisa.F & Ajeng.W